Marine transgression refers to a geological process in which the sea level rises relative to the land, resulting in the migration of the shoreline inland. It occurs when there is an increase in the volume of water in the oceans or a subsidence of the land, or a combination of both.
During a marine transgression, the sea level rises and inundates coastal areas, causing the shoreline to move landward. As a result, marine sediments such as sand, silt, and clay are deposited over previously exposed land surfaces. These sediments can form layers or beds known as marine transgressive deposits.
Marine transgressions can have various causes. They may result from global factors such as changes in climate and ice volume, leading to the melting of glaciers and ice caps. Local factors such as tectonic activity, subsidence of the land, or sediment compaction can also contribute to marine transgressions.
The opposite process of marine transgression is known as marine regression. During a marine regression, the sea level falls, and the shoreline migrates seaward as previously submerged areas become exposed.
The study of marine transgressions and regressions is important in understanding past changes in sea level, reconstructing ancient coastal environments, and interpreting the geological history of an area. It can provide valuable insights into climate change, tectonic activity, and the evolution of landscapes over time.