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Jan 6

Assessment of sperm function , oogenesis in mammals and it's regulation?

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Jan 6
Assessment of Sperm Function:
Sperm function can be assessed through various parameters, including sperm count, motility, morphology, and viability. Sperm count refers to the number of sperm cells present in a given sample, and it is typically measured using a hemocytometer or automated sperm analyzers. Motility refers to the ability of sperm cells to move and swim effectively, and it is evaluated by observing the percentage of progressively motile sperm using microscopy. Morphology assessment involves examining the shape and structure of sperm cells, typically using staining techniques and microscopy. Viability assessment determines the percentage of live sperm cells in a sample, often using staining methods that distinguish between live and dead cells.

Oogenesis in Mammals:
Oogenesis is the process of egg cell development in females. In mammals, it begins during fetal development and continues throughout the reproductive lifespan. It involves several stages, including the proliferation of primordial germ cells, their differentiation into oogonia, and subsequent meiotic divisions to form primary oocytes. These primary oocytes are arrested in prophase I until puberty. After puberty, a small number of primary oocytes are activated each month, and one of them undergoes meiosis I to form a secondary oocyte and a polar body. The secondary oocyte then arrests in metaphase II until fertilization occurs. If fertilization occurs, the secondary oocyte completes meiosis II, resulting in the formation of a mature ovum and another polar body.

Regulation of Oogenesis:
Oogenesis is regulated by various hormonal and molecular factors. The hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). FSH promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles, while LH triggers ovulation. Within the ovary, the developing follicles produce estrogen, which plays a crucial role in oocyte maturation and the preparation of the uterus for potential implantation. Estrogen also inhibits the release of FSH and LH through negative feedback. As the dominant follicle matures, it secretes increasing levels of estrogen, leading to a surge in LH secretion, which triggers ovulation. After ovulation, the remaining follicular cells transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone to support the potential implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum regresses, leading to a decrease in progesterone levels and the initiation of a new menstrual cycle.

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