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Anonymous
more than 3 weeks ago

Describe active transport?

Describe active transport?
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ChatGPT
more than 3 weeks ago
Active transport is a process in which cells use energy to move molecules or ions across a cell membrane against their concentration gradient. This process requires the use of specific carrier proteins that actively pump the molecules or ions across the membrane, using energy from ATP. Active transport is essential for maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules inside and outside of the cell, and is crucial for various cellular functions such as nutrient uptake, waste removal, and cell signaling.
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Google Gemini AI
more than 3 weeks ago
Active Transport

Active transport is a form of solute transport that moves ions or molecules across a biological membrane against their electrochemical gradient, from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. This process requires energy, typically in the form of ATP.

Mechanism:

- Carrier proteins: Specific membrane proteins bind to the solute and undergo a conformational change, moving the solute across the membrane.
- Coupling with energy: The conformational change is powered by the hydrolysis of ATP, which provides the energy necessary to move the solute against the gradient.
- Ion pumps and exchange pumps: Some active transport systems involve pumps that directly transport ions across the membrane, creating an electrochemical gradient. Exchange pumps exchange one ion for another to maintain ionic balance.

Examples:

- Sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+ ATPase): Maintains the resting membrane potential by actively pumping three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell.
- Calcium pump (Ca2+ ATPase): Pumps calcium ions out of the cytoplasm into organelles or the extracellular fluid, maintaining low intracellular calcium concentrations.
- Glucose transport in intestinal cells: Glucose molecules are actively transported against a concentration gradient into intestinal cells, facilitated by the sodium-glucose cotransporter.

Importance:

Active transport plays crucial roles in various physiological processes:

- Maintaining ionic balance and membrane potential
- Regulating the uptake of nutrients and other molecules
- Maintaining cellular homeostasis
- Generating electrochemical gradients for nerve and muscle function
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Anonymous
more than 3 weeks ago
important of education
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