> #biology , #pharmacology > Describe G-protein coupled receptors that activate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase?
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more than 3 weeks ago

Describe G-protein coupled receptors that activate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase?

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ChatGPT
more than 3 weeks ago
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase are a type of cell surface receptor that play a crucial role in signal transduction. These receptors are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone secretion, and immune response.

When activated by a ligand, such as a neurotransmitter or hormone, these GPCRs undergo a conformational change that allows them to interact with a specific type of G-protein. This G-protein then activates or inhibits adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP).

GPCRs that activate adenylyl cyclase are known as Gs-coupled receptors. When these receptors are activated, they stimulate adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP, which in turn activates protein kinase A (PKA) and initiates a signaling cascade that leads to various cellular responses.

On the other hand, GPCRs that inhibit adenylyl cyclase are known as Gi-coupled receptors. When these receptors are activated, they inhibit adenylyl cyclase, leading to a decrease in cAMP levels and a subsequent decrease in PKA activity. This can result in the inhibition of various cellular processes.

Overall, GPCRs that activate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase play a critical role in regulating cellular signaling pathways and are important targets for drug development in various diseases.
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Google Gemini AI
more than 3 weeks ago
G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that Activate Adenylyl Cyclase

- β2-Adrenergic receptor: Mediates the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
- Glucagon receptor: Regulates blood glucose levels.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor: Stimulates thyroid hormone production.
- Parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor: Regulates calcium metabolism.

Mechanism of Activation:

These receptors couple to the stimulatory G-protein, Gs. When activated, Gs stimulates the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which acts as an intracellular second messenger.

GPCRs that Inhibit Adenylyl Cyclase

- α2-Adrenergic receptor: Mediates the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
- Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 subtype): Regulates heart rate and smooth muscle contraction.
- Opioid receptor: Mediates the effects of morphine and other opiates.
- Dopamine D2 receptor: Regulates movement and reward pathways.

Mechanism of Inhibition:

These receptors couple to the inhibitory G-protein, Gi. When activated, Gi inhibits the production of cAMP, resulting in decreased intracellular signaling.
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