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Describe the motivation process in expectance theory and goal setting theory?

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Expectancy theory and goal-setting theory are two motivational theories that explain how individuals are motivated to perform tasks and achieve goals. While they approach motivation from different angles, they both emphasize the importance of setting clear goals and perceiving a belief that effort will lead to successful performance.

  • Expectancy Theory:

Expectancy theory, proposed by Victor Vroom, suggests that motivation is influenced by three key factors: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.

a) Expectancy: This factor refers to an individual's belief that their effort will result in successful performance. It is the perception that if they exert effort and apply their skills and abilities, they will be able to accomplish the task successfully. If people perceive a high expectancy, they are more likely to be motivated.

b) Instrumentality: Instrumentality refers to the belief that successful performance will lead to desired outcomes or rewards. Individuals must perceive a clear connection between their performance and the rewards they expect to receive. If they believe their performance will be rewarded, their motivation will increase.

c) Valence: Valence refers to the value or importance individuals place on the anticipated rewards or outcomes. It involves assessing the attractiveness or desirability of the rewards associated with successful performance. Different people may have different valences for the same reward. Higher valence leads to increased motivation.

In summary, according to expectancy theory, motivation is driven by the belief that effort leads to successful performance, successful performance leads to desired outcomes, and those outcomes have value or importance to the individual.

  • Goal-Setting Theory:

Goal-setting theory, proposed by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, focuses on the role of specific and challenging goals in motivating individuals. According to this theory, setting clear and specific goals leads to higher levels of motivation and performance.

The process of motivation in goal-setting theory involves the following:

a) Goal Setting: The first step is setting specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) goals. Clear goals provide individuals with a clear target to strive for and enhance motivation.

b) Goal Acceptance: Individuals must accept and commit to the goals they have set for themselves. When individuals are involved in the goal-setting process and have a sense of ownership, they are more likely to be motivated.

c) Goal Feedback: Regular feedback and progress monitoring are essential for motivation. Feedback helps individuals assess their performance, adjust their efforts, and stay focused on achieving their goals.

d) Goal Complexity: Goals that are challenging but attainable have a greater motivational impact. Challenging goals encourage individuals to exert effort and develop strategies to achieve them.

e) Goal Support: A supportive environment, including resources, guidance, and encouragement from others, plays a significant role in maintaining motivation.

In summary, goal-setting theory emphasizes the importance of setting specific and challenging goals, accepting and committing to them, receiving feedback, and having a supportive environment to enhance motivation and improve performance.

Both expectancy theory and goal-setting theory provide valuable insights into the factors that motivate individuals. While expectancy theory focuses on the belief in successful performance and desired outcomes, goal-setting theory emphasizes the role of clear goals in driving motivation.

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