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May 16

# Differentiate between dependent and independent variables ?

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May 16
Dependent Variable:
1. A dependent variable is the variable that is being measured or tested in an experiment.
2. It is the outcome or result that is affected by changes in the independent variable.
3. The dependent variable is plotted on the y-axis in a graph.
4. It is denoted by "Y" in mathematical equations.
5. Examples of dependent variables include test scores, weight loss, and reaction time.

Independent Variable:
1. An independent variable is the variable that is manipulated or controlled in an experiment.
2. It is the variable that is believed to have an effect on the dependent variable.
3. The independent variable is plotted on the x-axis in a graph.
4. It is denoted by "X" in mathematical equations.
5. Examples of independent variables include time, temperature, and amount of sunlight.
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May 16
Dependent Variable:

- The variable that is being measured or observed.
- Its value depends on the value of the independent variable.
- Represented on the y-axis of a graph.

Independent Variable:

- The variable that is manipulated or changed by the researcher.
- Its value is not affected by the dependent variable.
- Represented on the x-axis of a graph.

Key Differences:

- Directionality: Dependent variables are influenced by independent variables, while independent variables are not affected by dependent variables.
- Manipulation: Independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter, while dependent variables are not.
- Control: The experimenter has control over the independent variable, but not the dependent variable.
- Measurement: Dependent variables are measured after the experiment is conducted, while independent variables are set before the experiment begins.

Example:

In an experiment to study the effects of fertilizer on plant growth:

- Independent variable: Amount of fertilizer applied
- Dependent variable: Plant height

By varying the amount of fertilizer applied (independent variable), researchers can observe the changes in plant height (dependent variable).
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