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Examine briefly the land revenue system of the Mughals? ?

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The Mughal land revenue system was known as the Zabt system, which was based on the principles of taxation and revenue collection. The system was introduced by Akbar and was further refined by subsequent Mughal emperors.

Under the Zabt system, the land was surveyed and assessed for its productivity and potential revenue. The revenue was fixed based on the estimated yield of the land and was collected in cash or kind. The revenue was typically set at one-third or one-half of the total produce of the land.

The revenue collection was carried out by local officials known as zamindars, who were responsible for collecting the revenue from the peasants and forwarding it to the Mughal government. The zamindars were granted hereditary rights to collect revenue in exchange for their loyalty and service to the Mughal emperor.

Overall, the Mughal land revenue system was efficient in terms of revenue collection and administration, but it also led to exploitation and oppression of the peasants by the zamindars. The system eventually became a major source of discontent among the peasantry, contributing to the decline of the Mughal Empire.
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Mughal Land Revenue System

The Mughal land revenue system was a complex and evolving system that underwent several changes during the Mughal era. Key aspects included:

- Zamindari System: The Mughals largely retained the pre-existing zamindari system, where zamindars (landlords) collected revenue from their estates.
- Revenue Assessment: Land was classified into different categories based on fertility, and revenue was assessed accordingly.
- Methods of Assessment: There were various methods of revenue assessment, including:
- Zabti system: Revenue was fixed for a specific area, based on past assessments.
- Kankut system: Revenue was determined based on the actual crop yield.
- Bhatta system: Revenue was fixed as a share of the produce.
- Revenue Officials: The revenue system was administered by a hierarchy of officials, including:
- Diwan (Minister of Finance)
- Subahdars (Provincial Governors)
- Faujdars (Military Commanders)
- Qanungos (Revenue Surveyors)
- Jagirdari System: Certain lands were granted as jagirs (fiefs) to nobles or officials in lieu of salaries. Jagirdars collected revenue from these lands and were responsible for maintaining order.
- Mansabdari System: The mansabdari system ranked nobles and officials based on their rank and salary. The revenue assigned to each rank helped determine their income.
- Cash Collections: The Mughals emphasized the collection of revenue in cash, rather than in kind, ensuring a more regular income for the state.
- Periodic Assessments: Revenue assessments were periodically revised to reflect changes in crop yields and other factors.
- Forced Labor: In some instances, the Mughals imposed forced labor (begar) to supplement tax revenue.

The Mughal land revenue system was generally efficient and contributed significantly to the empire's wealth. However, it also faced challenges such as corruption, abuse of power, and resistance from zamindars and peasants.

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