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Jan 3

Explain in detail what logical volume management and RAID ?

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Jan 3
Logical Volume Management (LVM) is a software-based approach to managing disk storage on a computer system. It provides a flexible and efficient way to manage physical storage devices such as hard drives or solid-state drives (SSDs) by abstracting them into logical volumes that can be easily resized, moved, or combined.

LVM works by creating three main components: physical volumes (PVs), volume groups (VGs), and logical volumes (LVs). A physical volume is a storage device that can be a whole disk or a partition on a disk. Multiple physical volumes can be grouped together to form a volume group. Logical volumes are then created within the volume group, and they act as virtual partitions that can be formatted with a file system and mounted like a regular disk partition.

The key benefits of LVM include:

1. Flexibility: LVM allows for dynamic resizing of logical volumes, which means you can easily increase or decrease the size of a volume without having to repartition the entire disk. This is particularly useful when you need to add or remove storage space from a running system.

2. Data striping: LVM supports striping, which is a technique that spreads data across multiple physical volumes to improve performance. By distributing data across multiple disks, read and write operations can be performed in parallel, resulting in faster data access.

3. Snapshotting: LVM allows you to create snapshots, which are point-in-time copies of a logical volume. Snapshots can be used for backup purposes or to create a consistent state of a volume before making changes.

4. Data migration: LVM provides the ability to migrate data between physical volumes within a volume group. This can be useful when you need to replace a failing disk or balance the load across multiple disks.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a technology that combines multiple physical disks into a single logical unit to improve performance, reliability, or both. RAID can be implemented in hardware or software, and it offers different levels or configurations, each with its own advantages and trade-offs.

The most common RAID levels are:

1. RAID 0: Also known as striping, RAID 0 splits data across multiple disks without any redundancy. This improves performance by allowing data to be read or written in parallel, but it offers no fault tolerance. If one disk fails, all data is lost.

2. RAID 1: Also known as mirroring, RAID 1 duplicates data across multiple disks. This provides redundancy, so if one disk fails, the data can still be accessed from the other disk. However, it does not offer any performance improvement.

3. RAID 5: RAID 5 uses block-level striping with distributed parity. It requires at least three disks and provides both performance improvement and fault tolerance. If one disk fails, the data can be reconstructed using the parity information stored on the remaining disks.

4. RAID 6: Similar to RAID 5, RAID 6 uses block-level striping with double distributed parity. It requires at least four disks and provides higher fault tolerance by allowing for the failure of two disks simultaneously.

5. RAID 10: Also known as RAID 1+0, RAID 10 combines mirroring and striping. It requires at least four disks and provides both performance improvement and high fault tolerance. Data is mirrored across pairs of disks, and then the mirrored pairs are striped.

RAID offers various benefits depending on the level used, including improved performance, increased storage capacity, and enhanced data protection. However, it also has some drawbacks, such as increased complexity, higher cost, and reduced usable storage capacity due to redundancy.
Jan 3
Write how to implementing lvm,creating logical volumes(lvs),manipulating vGs,and lvs?

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