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Dec 10, 2023

Hormones and their functions - pituitary, pineal, thyroid, pancreas and adrenal?

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Dec 10, 2023
The pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, and adrenal glands are all part of the endocrine system and produce hormones that regulate various bodily functions. Here are their functions:

1. Pituitary gland:
- Growth hormone (GH): Stimulates growth and development of bones and tissues.
- Prolactin (PRL): Stimulates milk production in females.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): Controls the release of hormones from the thyroid gland.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): Stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): Regulate reproductive functions such as egg and sperm production and sex hormone release.
- Oxytocin: Stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): Regulates water balance by controlling the reabsorption of water in the kidneys.

2. Pineal gland:
- Melatonin: Regulates sleep-wake cycles (circadian rhythm) and plays a role in reproductive function.

3. Thyroid gland:
- Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3): Regulate metabolism, growth, and development.
- Calcitonin: Regulates calcium levels in the blood by promoting its uptake into bones.

4. Pancreas:
- Insulin: Regulates blood glucose levels by promoting the uptake of glucose into cells.
- Glucagon: Increases blood glucose levels by promoting the breakdown of glycogen into glucose.

5. Adrenal glands:
- Adrenal cortex:
- Cortisol: Regulates metabolism, immune response, and stress response.
- Aldosterone: Regulates sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure.
- Androgens: Contribute to the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
- Adrenal medulla:
- Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine: Regulate the "fight-or-flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and energy availability.

It's important to note that these are just some of the hormones produced by these glands, and each gland has additional functions and hormones not mentioned here.

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