Cameroon was partitioned by the colonial powers of Germany and France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1884, Germany established a protectorate over the coastal region of Cameroon, known as Kamerun. The German colonial administration expanded its control inland, establishing plantations and exploiting the region's resources. However, during World War I, German forces were defeated by the Allied powers, and Germany lost its colonies.
After the war, the League of Nations granted France a mandate over most of the former German Kamerun, while the British were given control over a smaller portion known as British Cameroons. The French mandate territory was divided into two regions: French Cameroun in the east and British Cameroons in the west.
In 1960, French Cameroun gained independence from France and became the Republic of Cameroon. The following year, British Cameroons held a plebiscite to determine its future. The northern part of British Cameroons voted to join Nigeria, while the southern part voted to join the Republic of Cameroon.
As a result of these historical events, Cameroon is currently divided into two regions: the predominantly French-speaking Republic of Cameroon and the English-speaking regions of Northwest and Southwest Cameroon. The partition has led to tensions and conflicts between the Anglophone and Francophone populations in the country.