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What are the microbes found when gram negative staining occur?

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Some common microbes that are found when gram negative staining occurs include:

1. Escherichia coli (E. coli)
2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
3. Salmonella spp.
4. Klebsiella pneumoniae
5. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
6. Acinetobacter baumannii
7. Proteus spp.
8. Haemophilus influenzae

These microbes have a thin peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall, which does not retain the crystal violet stain during the gram staining process, causing them to appear pink or red under a microscope.
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Gram-Negative Microbes

Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by their ability to retain the counterstain (safranin) after the Gram staining procedure, resulting in a pink or red color. This is due to the presence of a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Examples of Gram-Negative Microbes:

- Proteobacteria
- Escherichia coli (E. coli)
- Salmonella spp.
- Pseudomonas spp.
- Klebsiella pneumoniae
- Bacteroidetes
- Bacteroides fragilis
- Porphyromonas gingivalis
- Chlamydiae
- Chlamydia trachomatis
- Chlamydia pneumoniae
- Spirochetes
- Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
- Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
- Cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue-green algae)
- Nostoc
- Anabaena

Notable Features of Gram-Negative Microbes:

- LPS: A major component of the outer membrane that contributes to virulence and immune evasion.
- Flagella: Motile structures that aid in movement.
- Fimbriae and pili: Adhesion structures that facilitate attachment to host cells.
- Endotoxins: Toxic components released from the outer membrane upon cell lysis, which can cause fever and other symptoms.
- Multidrug resistance: Some gram-negative bacteria have mechanisms to resist antibiotics, making treatment challenging.

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