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more than 4 weeks ago

What are the problems of extension systems?

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more than 4 weeks ago
1. Lack of funding: Extension systems often face budget constraints, which can limit their ability to provide adequate support and resources to farmers.

2. Limited reach: Extension systems may struggle to reach all farmers, particularly those in remote or marginalized areas, leading to unequal access to information and services.

3. Outdated information: Extension systems may struggle to keep up with rapidly changing agricultural practices and technologies, resulting in the dissemination of outdated or inaccurate information.

4. Lack of coordination: Extension systems may lack coordination with other agricultural support services, leading to duplication of efforts and inefficiencies.

5. Limited capacity: Extension workers may lack the necessary training and expertise to effectively support farmers, leading to subpar outcomes.

6. Resistance to change: Farmers may be resistant to adopting new practices or technologies recommended by extension systems, hindering the effectiveness of their efforts.

7. Sustainability: Extension systems may struggle to maintain long-term support for farmers, leading to a lack of continuity in services and support.
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more than 4 weeks ago

- Fragmented and uncoordinated: Extension systems may be fragmented across multiple agencies, ministries, and organizations, leading to duplication, overlap, and gaps in service delivery.
- Top-down approach: Extension programs may be designed and implemented without sufficient input from farmers and local communities, leading to irrelevant or ineffective interventions.
- Lack of sustainability: Extension systems may rely heavily on external funding, making them vulnerable to budget cuts and discontinuation of support.

Human Resource:

- Inadequate training and capacity: Extension agents may lack the necessary knowledge, skills, and capacity to effectively address farmers' needs.
- High turnover: Extension agents may experience high turnover due to low salaries, limited career prospects, and lack of incentives.
- Gender imbalances: Extension systems may under-represent women and marginalized groups, leading to inequitable access to services.


- Limited funding: Extension systems often face chronic underfunding, which constrains their ability to provide timely and quality services.
- Inefficient use of resources: Funds may be allocated inefficiently, resulting in waste and duplication of efforts.


- Lack of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs): Farmers and extension agents may lack access to ICTs, hindering knowledge sharing and delivery of effective interventions.
- Digital illiteracy: Extension agents and farmers may have limited digital literacy, impeding their ability to fully utilize ICTs.

Cultural and Institutional:

- Cultural barriers: Extension systems may not consider local cultural practices, beliefs, and values, leading to resistance or low adoption of recommended technologies.
- Institutional constraints: Bureaucratic procedures and rigid management structures can hinder the flexibility and responsiveness of extension systems.


- Lack of participatory approaches: Extension programs may fail to involve farmers actively in the planning and implementation of interventions, leading to lower adoption rates.
- Inadequate monitoring and evaluation: Extension systems may not have robust monitoring and evaluation systems in place to measure the impact and effectiveness of their programs.

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