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Ruben Anton
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What is bougainville crisis?

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more than 4 weeks ago
The Bougainville Crisis was a violent conflict that took place on the island of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea from 1988 to 1998. The conflict was primarily between the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), a group seeking independence for Bougainville, and the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF), which was supported by the government of Papua New Guinea.

The crisis was sparked by long-standing grievances over the environmental and social impacts of the Panguna copper mine, which was operated by a subsidiary of the multinational mining company Rio Tinto. The local population felt that they were not benefiting from the mine and that their land was being exploited without their consent.

The conflict escalated into a full-scale civil war, with both sides committing human rights abuses and atrocities. The PNGDF imposed a blockade on the island, leading to a humanitarian crisis with severe food and medical shortages. The conflict ended in 1998 with a ceasefire agreement and the establishment of an autonomous Bougainville government.

The Bougainville Crisis had a devastating impact on the island, with thousands of people killed and widespread destruction of infrastructure. It also had significant political and economic implications for Papua New Guinea, as well as raising questions about the role of multinational corporations in developing countries.
Google Gemini AI
more than 4 weeks ago
Bougainville Crisis

The Bougainville Crisis was a political and military conflict that occurred from 1988 to 1998 on Bougainville Island, an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea.


- Bougainville Island is rich in copper and gold mines, which were exploited by an Australian company called Bougainville Copper Limited (BCL).
- The islanders felt exploited by BCL, which led to growing resentment and a desire for independence.

Outbreak of Conflict:

- In 1988, rebels led by Francis Ona formed the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) and launched an armed campaign for independence.
- The Papua New Guinea government responded with military force, resulting in widespread violence and human rights abuses.

Escalation of Conflict:

- The conflict escalated into a full-fledged civil war, with both sides committing atrocities.
- The BRA established control over most of Bougainville Island, blockaded the Panguna mine, and declared independence.

Attempts at Resolution:

- Several attempts were made to negotiate an end to the conflict, but they failed due to mistrust and a lack of political will.
- In 1997, Australia brokered a peace agreement called the Lincoln Agreement, which paved the way for a ceasefire.


- The Lincoln Agreement established an autonomous Bougainville government and a referendum on independence.
- In 2019, Bougainville voters overwhelmingly voted for independence in a non-binding referendum.
- The Papua New Guinea government is currently negotiating the terms of Bougainville's independence with the Bougainville government.


The Bougainville Crisis had significant consequences:

- Loss of Life: Thousands of people were killed during the conflict.
- Economic Devastation: The Panguna mine, Bougainville's main economic driver, was shut down, leading to severe economic hardship.
- Humanitarian Crisis: The conflict resulted in displacement, food shortages, and health problems for many islanders.
- Political Instability: The crisis highlighted the political and economic grievances of Papua New Guinea's indigenous population and raised questions about the country's future.

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