The working principle of a microwave oven, also known as a microwave, is based on the concept of electromagnetic radiation. It uses microwaves, which are a form of electromagnetic waves, to heat and cook food.
Inside the microwave oven, there is a magnetron, which is a device that generates microwaves. When the oven is turned on, the magnetron produces high-frequency microwaves. These microwaves are then directed into the cooking chamber through a waveguide.
The microwaves bounce off the reflective metal walls of the cooking chamber, causing them to be evenly distributed throughout the space. The food placed inside the oven absorbs these microwaves, which excite the water molecules present in the food.
As the water molecules vibrate rapidly due to the absorbed microwaves, they generate heat. This heat is then transferred to the surrounding molecules, leading to the overall heating of the food. The microwaves penetrate the food, cooking it from the inside out, unlike conventional ovens that primarily heat the outer layers.
The microwave oven also contains a rotating turntable or a rotating antenna to ensure even cooking by constantly moving the food and exposing it to different areas of the microwave field.
The oven is equipped with a control panel that allows users to set the desired cooking time and power level. Once the set time elapses, the magnetron is turned off, and the microwaves stop being generated, resulting in the cessation of heating.
It is important to note that microwaves are specifically designed to interact with water molecules, which is why they are effective in heating food items with high water content. However, they are not suitable for all types of cooking and may not provide the same browning or crisping effects as traditional ovens.