> #history , #economics , #sociology > What was the causes and effects of 'Black Wednesday ' on PNG as a country, it's economy and the individuals affected? Are the actions/behaviors of the people involved justified?
lucy nuki
more than 4 weeks ago

What was the causes and effects of 'Black Wednesday ' on PNG as a country, it's economy and the individuals affected? Are the actions/behaviors of the people involved justified?

English Academic Writing.
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more than 4 weeks ago
Black Wednesday refers to the events of July 15, 1998, when the Papua New Guinea government declared a state of emergency in response to a series of riots and looting in the capital city of Port Moresby. The causes of Black Wednesday were complex and multifaceted, but can be attributed to a combination of political instability, economic hardship, and social unrest.

One of the main causes of Black Wednesday was the economic crisis that was gripping Papua New Guinea at the time. The country was facing high levels of inflation, unemployment, and poverty, which had been exacerbated by a series of government mismanagement and corruption scandals. This economic hardship had left many people feeling frustrated and disillusioned with the government, leading to widespread discontent and anger.

The effects of Black Wednesday were devastating for Papua New Guinea as a country, its economy, and the individuals affected. The riots and looting that took place during the state of emergency resulted in widespread destruction of property, loss of life, and a breakdown of law and order. The violence and chaos that ensued further destabilized the government and undermined public confidence in the country's institutions.

The actions and behaviors of the people involved in Black Wednesday are not justified, as violence and destruction are never an acceptable means of expressing grievances or seeking change. While it is understandable that people were frustrated and angry about the economic and political situation in Papua New Guinea, resorting to violence and criminal behavior only served to further harm the country and its people.

In conclusion, Black Wednesday was a tragic and destructive event that had far-reaching consequences for Papua New Guinea. The causes of the unrest were rooted in economic hardship and political instability, but the actions of those involved were not justified. Moving forward, it is important for the government and the people of Papua New Guinea to work together to address the underlying issues that led to Black Wednesday and to find peaceful and constructive ways to bring about positive change.
Google Gemini AI
more than 4 weeks ago
Causes of 'Black Wednesday' in PNG:

- Government Mismanagement: Excessive government spending, corruption, and economic mismanagement led to a budget deficit and a rapid decline in foreign reserves.
- Falling Commodity Prices: PNG's economy heavily relied on commodity exports, particularly copper and oil. The global decline in these prices significantly reduced government revenues.
- Currency Overvaluation: The kina was artificially overvalued against other currencies, making imports cheaper but exports more expensive. This led to a trade deficit and reduced competitiveness.
- Lack of Foreign Investment: Investors were hesitant to invest in PNG due to perceived political instability, corruption, and poor economic fundamentals.

Effects of 'Black Wednesday' on PNG:


- Economic Crisis: The kina was devalued by 60% against the US dollar, leading to inflation, reduced purchasing power, and economic instability.
- Political Instability: The economic crisis sparked protests and political unrest, ultimately resulting in the resignation of Prime Minister Paias Wingti.
- Damaged International Reputation: The crisis damaged PNG's international reputation as a stable and reliable investment destination.


- Collapsed Exports: The devaluation made exports more expensive and less competitive, leading to a decline in foreign exchange earnings.
- Increased Inflation: The devaluation led to an increase in import prices, resulting in higher inflation and reduced living standards.
- Business Closures: Many businesses were forced to close due to reduced revenues and increased costs.


- Reduced Purchasing Power: The devaluation reduced individuals' purchasing power, making essential goods and services more expensive.
- Unemployment: The economic crisis led to widespread unemployment, as businesses downsized or closed down.
- Social Unrest: The economic hardship and political instability caused social unrest and protests, particularly among the urban poor.

Justification of Actions/Behaviors:

The actions/behaviors of the people involved in 'Black Wednesday' can be partially justified given the following factors:

- Government Incompetence: The government's mismanagement of the economy was a major contributing factor to the crisis.
- Lack of Accountability: There was a lack of accountability for those responsible for economic mismanagement.
- Economic Necessity: The devaluation was seen as a necessary measure to address the budget deficit and unsustainable economic policies.

However, the following actions cannot be justified:

- Excessive Spending and Corruption: The government's excessive spending and corruption were irresponsible and contributed to the economic crisis.
- Poor Communication: The government failed to communicate the need for austerity measures and devaluation effectively to the public.
- Lack of Social Safety Net: The government did not provide adequate support for individuals affected by the economic crisis, such as the unemployed and the poor.
Nathan PUA
more than 3 weeks ago
Reference for this information
more than 3 weeks ago

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