Terrace farming is necessary for many people who live in mountainous regions due to the following reasons:
1. Limited flat land: Mountainous regions often have limited flat land available for agriculture. Terrace farming allows people to create flat, level surfaces on the slopes of mountains, maximizing the use of available land for cultivation.
2. Soil erosion control: Mountainous regions are prone to soil erosion due to the steep slopes and heavy rainfall. Terrace farming helps to prevent soil erosion by creating steps or terraces on the slopes, which slow down the flow of water and prevent the topsoil from being washed away.
3. Water conservation: Terrace farming helps in water conservation by capturing and retaining rainfall. The terraces act as small reservoirs, allowing water to be absorbed by the soil and preventing it from running off quickly. This helps to ensure a steady water supply for crops, especially during dry periods.
4. Increased agricultural productivity: Terrace farming allows for the cultivation of crops on multiple levels or steps, creating microclimates with varying temperatures, sunlight exposure, and moisture levels. This enables farmers to grow a wider variety of crops and increase overall agricultural productivity.
5. Accessibility and ease of farming: Terraces provide flat surfaces for farming, making it easier for farmers to access their crops for planting, maintenance, and harvesting. It reduces the risk of accidents and injuries associated with farming on steep slopes.
6. Sustainable farming: Terrace farming is a sustainable agricultural practice that has been used for centuries. It helps to preserve the natural landscape and biodiversity of mountainous regions while providing a means of livelihood for the local communities.
Overall, terrace farming is necessary in mountainous regions to overcome the challenges posed by limited flat land, soil erosion, water scarcity, and to maximize agricultural productivity while ensuring sustainability.