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Write a brief note on the Harappan civilization? ?

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The Harappan civilization, also known as the Indus Valley civilization, was one of the most advanced ancient civilizations that flourished in the Indus River valley in present-day Pakistan and northwest India from around 3300 to 1300 BCE. It was characterized by well-planned cities, advanced architecture, sophisticated drainage systems, and a system of writing that has yet to be deciphered.

The Harappan civilization was a highly organized society with a complex social structure, trade networks, and a thriving economy based on agriculture and trade. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were the largest and most well-known urban centers of the civilization, with populations estimated to be in the tens of thousands.

Despite its advancements, the Harappan civilization declined around 1300 BCE for reasons that are still debated among historians and archaeologists. Possible factors include environmental changes, natural disasters, or invasions by outside forces.

Overall, the Harappan civilization left a lasting legacy in the Indian subcontinent and beyond, influencing later cultures and civilizations in the region. Its achievements in urban planning, architecture, and trade demonstrate the sophistication and ingenuity of ancient societies.
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Harappan Civilization

The Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus Valley Civilization, flourished in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent from approximately 3300 to 1900 BCE. It is one of the most ancient urban civilizations in the world.

Key Features:

- Urbanization: Harappan cities were highly organized with well-planned streets, drainage systems, and multi-storied buildings made of baked bricks.
- Advanced Architecture: The cities featured monumental structures such as the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro, showcasing skilled engineering and construction techniques.
- Standardized Weights and Measures: The Harappans developed a sophisticated system of weights and measures, indicating a well-organized society.
- Indus Script: They created a unique script that remains undeciphered to this day, adding to the mystery surrounding their culture.
- Agriculture and Trade: The civilization flourished through agriculture, growing crops such as wheat, barley, and cotton. They also engaged in extensive trade with Mesopotamia and other regions.


The reasons for the decline of the Harappan Civilization are still debated. Theories include environmental changes, such as droughts and floods, as well as societal factors like overpopulation and warfare.


The Harappan Civilization left an enduring legacy in the Indian subcontinent and beyond. Its advanced urban planning and technological innovations continue to inspire and influence architectural and cultural practices to this day. The Indus script remains a source of fascination and research for linguists and historians.

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