Alderfer's ERG theory is a motivation theory proposed by Clayton Alderfer in 1969. It is an extension of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory and categorizes human needs into three main categories: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.
1. Existence needs: These are the basic physiological and material needs required for survival, such as food, water, shelter, and safety. They are similar to Maslow's physiological and safety needs.
2. Relatedness needs: These needs involve interpersonal relationships and social interactions. They include the need for love, belongingness, and meaningful relationships with others. They are similar to Maslow's social and esteem needs.
3. Growth needs: These needs are related to personal development, self-esteem, and self-actualization. They include the need for personal growth, achievement, and self-fulfillment. They are similar to Maslow's self-actualization needs.
According to Alderfer, unlike Maslow's hierarchy, individuals can experience multiple needs simultaneously and can move back and forth between different needs. For example, if a person is unable to fulfill their growth needs, they may regress to relatedness or existence needs.
Alderfer's ERG theory also introduces the concept of frustration-regression, which suggests that if a higher-level need is not satisfied, an individual may become frustrated and regress to a lower-level need. However, if a lower-level need is satisfied, it does not necessarily mean that higher-level needs will automatically become motivating factors.
Overall, Alderfer's ERG theory provides a more flexible and dynamic approach to understanding human motivation, acknowledging that individuals have multiple needs that can influence their behavior and satisfaction.