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Michael Kimwaga
Feb 15

Describe common disorders of respiratory system (asthma,nasal polyps)?

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Feb 15
1. Asthma: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to difficulty in breathing. Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Asthma attacks can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, exercise, cold air, and stress. Treatment usually involves the use of inhalers to control symptoms and prevent exacerbations.

2. Nasal Polyps: Nasal polyps are noncancerous growths that develop in the lining of the nasal passages or sinuses. They are often associated with chronic inflammation and can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, facial pain or pressure, and reduced sense of smell. Nasal polyps can be caused by conditions like chronic sinusitis, asthma, allergies, or certain immune disorders. Treatment options include medications to reduce inflammation, nasal sprays, or in severe cases, surgical removal of the polyps.

3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): COPD is a progressive lung disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It is primarily caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational hazards. COPD leads to the obstruction of airflow, resulting in symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and frequent respiratory infections. Treatment involves quitting smoking, medications to manage symptoms, pulmonary rehabilitation, and in severe cases, supplemental oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

4. Pneumonia: Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Common symptoms include cough with phlegm, fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. Pneumonia can range from mild to severe, and treatment depends on the cause and severity. It often involves antibiotics, rest, fluids, and sometimes hospitalization for more severe cases.

5. Sleep Apnea: Sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or shallow breaths during sleep. It can be caused by the relaxation of throat muscles, obesity, or structural abnormalities in the airway. Common symptoms include loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, morning headaches, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, such as weight loss and avoiding alcohol, the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machines, or in some cases, surgery to correct structural issues.

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