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Nov 27, 2023

With references and citations what are psychological principles in teaching and learning?


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Nov 27, 2023
Psychological principles in teaching and learning are based on research and theories in the field of psychology that inform effective instructional practices. Here are some key psychological principles in teaching and learning, along with references and citations to support them:

1. Active Learning: Active learning engages students in the learning process through activities that require them to think, discuss, and apply knowledge. Research has shown that active learning promotes better understanding, retention, and transfer of knowledge (Freeman et al., 2014).

2. Cognitive Load Theory: Cognitive load theory suggests that learners have limited working memory capacity, and instructional materials should be designed to minimize cognitive load and promote effective learning. This theory emphasizes the importance of presenting information in a way that is organized, meaningful, and aligned with learners' prior knowledge (Sweller, Ayres, & Kalyuga, 2011).

3. Constructivism: Constructivism is a learning theory that emphasizes the active construction of knowledge by learners through their experiences and interactions with the environment. According to this theory, learners build their understanding by connecting new information to their existing knowledge and by engaging in problem-solving activities (Piaget, 1973).

4. Social Learning Theory: Social learning theory posits that learning occurs through observation, imitation, and modeling of others. It highlights the importance of social interactions and the role of peers, teachers, and the environment in shaping learning outcomes (Bandura, 1977).

5. Self-Regulated Learning: Self-regulated learning refers to learners' ability to set goals, monitor their progress, and regulate their own learning processes. It involves metacognitive strategies such as planning, self-monitoring, and self-reflection, which have been shown to enhance learning outcomes (Zimmerman, 2002).

6. Motivation: Motivation plays a crucial role in learning. Intrinsic motivation, which comes from within the learner, is associated with higher engagement and better learning outcomes. Extrinsic motivation, such as rewards or grades, can also be effective if they are used in a way that supports learners' autonomy and competence (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

These are just a few examples of psychological principles in teaching and learning. It is important to note that these principles are not mutually exclusive and can often overlap in practice. By understanding and applying these principles, educators can create effective learning environments that promote student engagement, understanding, and achievement.


Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.

Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415.

Piaget, J. (1973). To understand is to invent: The future of education. New York, NY: Grossman.

Sweller, J., Ayres, P., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load theory. New York, NY: Springer.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.

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